On this day in 1891, Samuel O'Reilly patented his electric "tattooing-machine", unknowingly creating a big future for quick and easy bad tattoo decision making. If there was a tattoo version of Back to the Future, taking out O'Reilly in the past could mean that young girls don't get dumb Rihanna tattoos today. Something to think about.
In honor of this legal anniversary, I picked some headlines that touch upon tattoo law:
Tattoos are often the source of controversy at criminal trials -- particularly when they are sought to be used as evidence of guilt. I wrote a post last year -- "Tattoos at Trial" -- noting a number of cases that have dealt with this issue.
In recent news, a teardrop tattoo led an innocent man to 16 years in prison for multiple rape charges as victims described their attacker as having the same tattoo. Recently exonerated, Luis Lorenzo Vargas said that he got his now faded teardrop tattoo when he was 13 to "fit in" with neighborhood kids. Vargas appealed his conviction a number of times but "it was not until the California Innocence Project urged authorities to test DNA evidence that he was vindicated."
On the flip side, a judge in Maine decided that a photo of a victim's tattoo would not be shown to jurors as it could prejudice jurors. The victim, Ricky Cole, had a "RIP" tattoo across his neck. Lawyers for Jason Cote, the man accused of bludgeoning Cole with a pipe, argued that this tattoo put Cole in fear of his life. The judge ruled that the photo wouldn't be used because "it implied Cole's involvement with the criminal justice system and would suggest to the jury that Cole had a propensity to violence."
In Germany, prosecutors are investigating whether a man violated the country's ban of the public display of Nazi symbols by appearing at a swimming pool with a tattoo of the Auschwitz death camp on his back. According to the Times of Israel, the prosecutors' spokesperson Lolita Lodenkaemper said that "another bather took a photo of the tattoo, which also carried the slogan from the Buchenwald concentration camp's gate, 'Jedem das Seine' -- 'to each his own' -- at a pool in Oranienburg, north of Berlin, on November 21. She says that having such a tattoo is legal but showing it publicly could be considered incitement."
According to some dedicated tattoo history research by Daredevil Tattoo co-owner Michelle Myles, the likely first permanent place of business for tattooing in the United States was that of Martin Hildebrandt over 150 years ago. Michelle notes, "Hildebrandt's 'atelier' was a few blocks southeast of the Bowery and Chatham Square, where Samuel O'Reilly later patented the first electric tattoo machine and other Bowery legends, including Charlie Wagner, worked until tattooing was banned in NYC in 1961."
That tattoo atelier was just steps away from the current location of Daredevil Tattoo, a highly respected place for tattooing today, and also, what will become a tattoo museum, which will be a resource for others to connect with that NYC's tattoo history through their collection of artifacts and documentation. Daredevil co-owner Brad Fink has been collecting tattoo memorabilia for over 20 years and has amassed a collection with items including a Thomas Edison engraving pen (that the O'Reilly patent was based on) and original O'Reilly artwork, among many other gems. But before Michelle and Brad can bring the pen and other artifacts to their museum, they need to to complete the work on the space and finish the display cases so the entire collection can be secured. They are asking for some help in doing that.
While I have a "no-Kickstarter rule" for this blog (as there are way too many requests), I'm making an exception here because this is an important project that will benefit the tattoo community overall.
On Daredevil Tattoo's NYC Museum of Tattoo History Kickstarter page, you'll find this beautiful video, embedded above, which I highly recommend watching, even if you cannot contribute, because it is so chock full of wonderful history lessons, including archival footage and a NYC tattoo history timeline. You'll also get to peak inside the Daredevil studio and growing museum space.
If you do contribute, even as little as $1, there are some fantastic perks, like beautiful prints from Daredevil's artists, tees, customized lighters, even a sideshow banner. For bigger spenders, Michelle will give you a tattoo history walk and lunch in Chinatown, along with the other perks, and for the top contribution, there's 12 hours of tattooing in the package, dinner for 6 at the chic Beauty & Essex, original artwork, and all the other goodies. Some serious swag, and for a good cause.
You can find more on it all here. But, as I said, I highly recommend you check out the video for a little learning.
Today, we have another wonderful installment from Paul Roe of Britishink for you tattoo history buffs!
By Paul Roe:
Now as I sit down to write this, that Shirley Bassey song just kept popping in to my head. Tattooing, like most things human, has been re-invented many, many times.
What is "Old School"? This question arose from a discussion on the way historic tattooing is presented in an exhibition setting. Some learned institutions are displaying comic book portrayals of anything tattoo related, which only perpetuates the myths, usually the bad ones, and ignores the rich social context and cultural significance of the art.
Generally, the stereotype is a grubby man in a one room shop, cigarette butt in mouth; this was the case in most major metropolitan cities -- and here's the key -- after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. This is the common perception of "Old School" tattooing that most people have today. The hardships and honest sweat of the working class man, purveyor to the working class around him, scraping a living from his street front shop. Bleak? Definitely.
The worn and weathered face of Charlie Wagner personifies the "Old School" so I'll use him as an example. He lost his life's savings in the crash -- about $11, 000 in 1929 -- equivalent to about $150,000 today. That tidy sum had been built up over a period of time starting as the apprentice to Samuel O'Reilly, the inventor of the electric tattooing machine. O'Reilly died in 1908, and by this point, Wagner had taken over the shop. So let's go back a little further to get an idea of what Mr. Wagner had as a working environment and mentor before America got broke.
Tattooing has always been a cross-class activity; in the vast majority of indigenous tattooing, the hierarchy of the group carries the most and best tattoos. Westerners spread the practice on board ships and the hand poked tattoos of ocean crossings took a great deal of time to complete. Some of those sailors settled in port towns to tattoo by hand primarily serving the military of that port.
Let's look at NYC before Wagner...
Martin Hildebrandt, a German immigrant, settled in New York City in 1846 and did great trade up to and through the Civil War, crossing the line to tattoo both Yankees and Confederates, establishing himself as the tattooist in NYC. In 1875, Samuel O'Reilly opened his Chatham Square location and became Hildebrandt's competition. Remember at this point all tattooing was done by hand and a growing interest was stirring in the society class of New York as wealthy British and Europeans returned from India and Japan with handmade body decorations as souvenirs of their travels, men and women alike. European aristocracy had embraced tattooing for decades and the news was spreading west.
The 1870's New York tattoo craze was on. And of course with each dinner party, each ball, each of those tattooed aristocrats needed to out-do their peers with the delicacy of their tattoo work, the price was often bragging rights too (and one carefully cultivated among the tattooists). But this was an age of revolution -- every process that could be mechanized was being mechanized. O'Reilly sped up the process a hundred fold with his rotary machine, which meant more tattoos could be done, and bags of cash could be made.
Marketing himself directly at the wealthy O'Reilly followed the names of Sutherland MacDonald (London) and Hori Chyu (Yokohama) as the go to tattooist on this side of the Atlantic, and by the time Charles Wagner joined him in the 1890s, O'Reilly ran quite a fine establishment. His Japanese assistants not only served tea to the clients but also would be sent uptown to apply a tattoo in the residence of a wealthy patron. This cost extra I'm sure.
The Japanese studio layout was emulated too, the first room you entered had couches and pillowed nooks to sit and take your tea, the second room contained the apprentices, both Japanese and American in O'Reillys case, and this is where Wagner started. The third room was the masters studio and if you had enough money and influence you got tattooed there. This layout and hierarchy is very similar to the western "atelier". The atmosphere would have to be pleasant for the upper class customers, a surrounding they would feel comfortable in with its damask cushions and elegant artwork strewn walls.
On January 30th, 1880, the New York Times explained "...that the noble savage has become the newfangled ideal...and hence to be tattooed is to put one's self in sympathy with Nature and to protest the sickly conventionalities of civilization..."
The poet Andrew Lang, in his 1884 Rhymes a la Mode proclaimed a high-caste person when tattooed was really an Art's Martyr:
"...The china on the shelf is very fair to view,So with the newspapers, the society balls and dinners, artists and statesmen alike buzzing with the tattoo fad from Europe, American tattooing flourished. High society names of the day wore tattoos from O'Reilly's establishment which could well have been tattooed by his assistant Wagner; among them Mrs. George Cornwallis West boasting a delicate snake around her left wrist, which she covered during the day with a matched gold bracelet, and Mrs. Clara Ward who's daytime dresses all had a long right sleeve and a short left sleeve but her evening dresses were constructed in reverse to reveal a snake circling her right shoulder and a butterfly.
The fashion waxed and waned each few years and those tattooists who endured were those who actively targeted their audience directly. In a 1905 publicity photo of Wagner, he's seen wearing a top hat and large fresh flower in his lapel, interestingly enough holding an O'Reilly machine when he had patented his own device (a side by side twin coil machine) only the year before.
But with the death of O'Reilly the socialites slowly stopped visiting Chatham Square as the fashions were changing and high society, in both Europe and the US, shunned the bold lines and "the American style" even straying from the patronage of Sutherland MacDonald in search of finer lines and more delicate work at the hands of Japanese masters such as Hori Chyu of Yokohama. This trend had started in the late 1890s, and by 1900, a New York millionaire had offered Hori Chyu an establishment in NYC at the annual salary of $12,000 (about $180,000 today). Sadly this arrangement never came to fruition.
The Bowery "fun zone" with its dime museums and amusements, displays of tattooed men and women and of course tattoo shops was falling out of vogue with the rich but not the average American. The tattooed men and women of the sideshow and circus were bread and butter for the tattooists of the day but sideshow wages were dropping and their novelty with the public wearing off. Just around the corner was the First World War and a new batch of tattoo hungry customers would descend upon the port city of New York...the military.
The latest and greatest development in the tattoo business was flash -- the stock images displayed usually on the walls and ready to be tattooed. These images had been around a long time, each individual artist making their own travel books and sketches but the wholesale distribution of pre-drawn flash really took off during WWI. The name "flash" is from the carnival days - a canvas roll of brightly colored images hanging outside the tattooist tent - to "flash" and catch the eye of the passing customer. Regimental badges, patriotic eagles and sweetheart remembrances are still with us as standard flash today.
Prior to about 1900 all the aristocratic atelier tattooing was custom drawn, made once and not repeated, in fact the derogatory term "Jagger" (still in use on the Bowery until the mid-thirties) meant someone who uses stencils and does not draw the tattoo on the body or even tattoo the image without the use of guide lines. Jagger is from the Scottish slang "to jab wildly". The act of replication was frowned upon by the great names but proved to be the saving grace for the industry as electric tattooing equipment had been for sale through various gentlemen's magazines and publications and now sheets of designs could be purchased too.
Lew the Jew tattooed in NYC from the early 1900s and is the person most responsible for the proliferation of tattoo flash. A former wallpaper designer, he returned home from the Spanish American war tattooed and entranced by the tattoo business. His basic designs are those that set the western traditional style and are still seen today on the walls of shops across the world.
Harry Lawson took a different approach. His three room studio in Los Angeles had examples of tattoos framed on every wall -- not flash painted on paper or card but preserved human skin, contracted from people he had met, bribed from the local coroner's office and otherwise obtained by unknown methods. His workspace contained a large desk with medical books and implements giving him a learned air. Mr. Lawson disappeared in 1920 and had advertised he was retiring in 1919, selling his entire operation and giving it up. He resurfaced on the Pike twenty years later. The stories of the high ranked officials and military officers he had tattooed were told until his death in 1950.
So "Old School" should be a term used lightly.
In my humble opinion it correctly describes any tattooing pre-electric device, which would make the great names of O'Reilly, MacDonald, Burchett and Wagner..."New School"!
The image of the grubby man sitting outside his one room street front shop, hungry and, surly with it, are what we consider to be right for the Old School label. But as with most of the industrial revolution we remember the grit, grime and soot, the appalling sanitary conditions of the very end of this historic period. We forget the lavish interiors, the splendor of presentation, the exotic visual influences from Asia and India and the titled men and women of leisure who were old or new money and would spend it to out-spend their peers as a kind of competition of worth, capitalized on by the tattooists of the day.
So as we begin 2013, we see that it's not too dissimilar from 1913 in terms of tattooing. There are excellent custom tattoo studios out there producing quality work on a small scale and there are street shops banging out flash all day long. Each has its market as history repeats itself.
That was the Golden Age of tattooing as this is the Golden Age of tattooing.
At your service,
Tattoodles Online Inc.
508 H St. NE
Washington DC 20002
Photo by Edgar Hoill
Today is the 120th anniversary of Samuel O'Reilly's electric tattoo machine, patented in 1891. As noted in this Reason.com post, the New York tattooist's invention is "based on the design for Thomas Edison's autographic printer, which was essentially a motorized engraving tool [which] sped up the process of tattooing while vastly improving the quality of the final product."
The Tattoo Archive has an extensive article on the machine's history. They also have cool posters for sale with the original patent text and illustrations (shown below).
Also check Jinx Boo's writing on the electric machine (and her entire blog if you haven't).
[Reason.com link via the Hope Gallery Blog.]
This Saturday, March 19th, is the official opening of Skin and Bones: Tattoos in the Life of the American Sailor at the Mystic Seaport in Connecticut.
The traveling exhibit from Philadelphia's Independence Seaport Museum (which we first wrote about in April 2009) explores the connection between tattooing and maritime life:
Skin & Bones presents over two centuries of ancient and modern tattooing tools, flash, and tattoo-related art, historic photographs, and artifacts to tell the story of how tattoos entered the sailor's life, what they meant, and why they got them.Nick Schonberger, consulting curator, says one of the highlights of this exhibit is the C.H. Fellowes book of flash, one of the oldest surviving American flash books. Also on view is Samuel O'Reilly's electric tattoo machine of 1891. Read more on the exhibit's other artifacts and programs here.
Skin & Bones runs until September 5th. The museum is open daily from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
[As I noted in my initial post on the exhibit: If you're wondering what the pig and rooster on the feet mean, read the Tattoo Archive's article on the symbolism of sailor tattoos.]
Freaks & Flash at Intuit, the Center for Intuitive & Outsider Art, in Chicago is a brilliant exhibit featuring tattoo flash designs along with sideshow banners.
Tattooist Nick Colella of the Chicago Tattoo Company says the highlights of the show include flash by George Burchett, Sailor Jerry, Amund Dietzel, Samuel O'Reilly ...
A Who's Who of Old School Masters!
In fact, many of the pieces have not been on public display since they were taken down from the walls of the shops in which they originally resided.
In addition, the exhibition features four sideshow banners depicting tattooed performers by banner artists Fred Johnson, Jack Cripe, and Snap Wyatt.
The show will run until January 9th.
You can view the work from Tuesday to Saturday 11am-5pm (Thursday it's open until 7:30pm) and admission is free.